under the tributary trade system of China

Takashi Suzuki
ISBN978-4-8396-0259-8 C3022



Takashi Suzuki

5 Aug. 1938 Born in Manchuria, Nationality Japanese
1962, BS Economics, University of Tokyo
1962, Sumitomo Metal industries, Economic Research Dept, Planning Dept
1975, Singapore Office, Representative Manager
1979, Manager, Business Research Section
1987, General Manger, Overseas Investment Dept
1989, President, Thai Steel Pipe Industries
1991, Deputy Director, Kashima Steel Works, Sumitomo Metals
1994, Director, Japan Research Institute, Head of Asian Research Group
1997, Professor, Kobe University, Faculty of Economics
2001, Professor, Toyo University, Faculty of Economics
2004, Retired Toyo university
2003, Doctorate of Economics, Kobe University

1995~8, Lecturer, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tokyo
1996~8, Guest Professor, Ritsumeikan University, Faculty of Economics(Writings:Japanese)
“The Economy of Southeast Asia”, Ochanomizu Press Co., 1996.
“The History and Economy of Southeast Asia” Nihon Keizai Hyouronsha, 2002.
“The Mystery of Srivijaya” Asahi Krie Co., 2008.
“The History of Srivijaya*The ancient trade between the East and West, under the tributary system of China.” Mekong Publishing Co. 2010.

【Preface and Acknowledgements】から
 In 2010, I wrote “The History of Śrīvijaya” in Japanese language, published by ‘Mekong Publishing Co., in Tokyo. This book is its English version, but not the complete translation.
 In Japan, a number of historians have studied the ancient history of Southeast Asia and Śrīvijaya. But most of them are convinced that the capital of Śrīvijaya was located at Palembang. Even at the entrance examination of universities, students must answer that Palembang was the capital of Śrīvijaya. Not only Japanese, the most historians in the world believe that ‘Palembang hypothesis’ is correct. However, judging from every aspect Palembang was actually one of subordinate states of Śrīvijaya but never had been the center of Śrīvijaya group. According to the Chinese historical text, for instance the Xin Tang-Shu and the records written by Yi-Jing, Śrīvijaya was located at the ‘Northern Hemisphere’, so to speak in the Malay Peninsula. In the Peninsula, only three states are candidates of Śrīvijaya, namely Kedah, Nakhon Si Thammarat and Chiya. Among them, Chaiya is only one conceivable place as the old capital of Śrīvijaya.
 It is curious for me why many historians have overlooked simple evidence. Perhaps many of them have not directly read the Chinese text. The histories of the Chinese Dynasties and other encyclopedia had been written by the Chinese top class intellectuals at each time. They were not free from script errors and misunderstanding, but generally speaking they were very serious to handle the materials and without any evidence they did not write their documents. As I have read many papers, I noticed one thing. Some prominent historians, especially Japanese experts of the Chinese histories had inclined to neglect easily the Chinese data as simple mistakes due to the descriptions were beyond their understanding. Even though G. Coedès was certainly a great historian of genius, but he could not have been free from misunderstanding. He pointed out many reasons to justify his hypotheses, but from my point of view, many of his scenarios were neither accurate nor realistic.
 When I was a student of University of Tokyo, faculty of economics, Professor Koji Iizuka, a prominent Orientalist suggested us to continue studying Asian affairs. Japan is one of Asian countries, but since the Meiji era Japanese had been too busy to import culture, knowledge and technology from the Western advanced countries and inclined to neglect to study Asia. I became an employee of Sumitomo Metal Industries, a big steel manufacturer. In 1975 I was assigned a representative manager of its Singapore office and later president of subsidiary company in Bangkok. So, I stayed many years in Southeast Asia and had opportunity to study the economy and history of Southeast Asia. In 1997 I was assigned a professor Kobe (national) University, faculty of economics where I lectured ‘the economy and history of Southeast Asia.
 When I studied on Southeast Asia, I had no teacher to learn, so I studied myself by reading books and numerous documents and established my own theory and hypotheses. Fortunately I have many intelligent friends who are enthusiastic about the study of Asia. They have often encouraged me to continue to study. I specially appreciate Prof. Manabu Tanaka, University of Tokyo and Prof. Susumu Yabuki, University of Yokohama City. Both are my old class-mates at UOT and we have continually studied on Asian for fifty years. Mr. Akira Kuwahara, president of ’Mekong Publishing Co.,’ and Ms. Yuka Omokawa, a capable editor of the company, have paid great effort to publish this book. In Japan publishing this kind of English book is not easy. Without the kindest support of my friends, not to say generous treatment from my wife Taeko I could not have published this book.

Introduction The historical outline of Śrīvijaya
Uncompleted Identification of the major states

Chapter1. Distorted history of ancient Southeast Asia

Chapter2.The development of trans -peninsular routes
 1)Kha-la-tan (Ho-lo-tan=呵羅単)
 2)Kan-tuo-li (Kan-da-ri=干陀利)
 3)Tan-tan (丹丹、単単)
 4)Chi-tu (赤土)
 5)Po-hang (婆皇) , Po-ta(da) (婆達)

Chapter3. A short history of Funan
1. Rise and fall of Funan
2. Pan-pan became the sanctuary of Funan
 (The relation between Funan and Pan-pan)
3. The trade of Chen-la and Pan-pan

Chapter4. Development of Śrīvijaya
1. Origin of Srivijaya
2. Expansion of Śrīvijaya to Sumatra and Java
3. Chen-la occupied Chaiya and Śailendra revenged
 3-1 Success of Chen-la’s invasion
 3-2 Retaliation of Srivijaya group
4. Inscriptions of Śrīvijaya in the Palembang area
 4-1.The Kedukan Bukit inscription
 4-2.The Talang Tuwo inscription
 4-3.The Telaga Batu inscription
 4-4.The Kota Kapur Inscription

Chapter 5. Śailendra
1. The origin of Śailendra
2. Śailendra as the leader of Srivijaya
3. Ligor Inscription
4. The Inscription of Śailendra in Java
 4-1.The Kalasan Inscription dated 778 AD
 4-2.The Kelurak Inscription Dated 782 AD
 4-3.The Sojomerto Inscription
5. The relatin between Srivijaya and Chen-la

Chapter 6. The problems of the Palembang hypothesis
1. Dr. J. Takakusu’s map of Yi-Jing’s itinerary
2. The basic concept of G. Coedès on Śrīvijaya
3. Some descriptions of Yi-Jing on Shi-li-fo-shi
 3-1.Did Yi-Jing arrived at Palembang within 20 days?
 3-2. More than 1,000 Buddhist monks in Palembang?
 3-3. Yi-Jing’s ‘Sundial’

Chapter 7. The Location of Shih-li-fo-shi (Śrīvijaya)
1. The Xin Tang-Shu says in the article of Shih-li-fo-shi
2. The Xin Tang-Shu says in the article of Kha-ling (Ho-ling)
3. Jia-Dan’s sea route and the location of Luo-Yue(羅越)

Chapter 8. San-fo-chi (三仏齊)
1. Formation of San-fo-chi
2. The center of San-fo-chi
3. The San-fo-chi’s relation with the Song Dynasty
4. Vassal states of San-fo-chi
5. Chola invaded San-fo-chi
6. Was Chola a subordinate state of San-fo-chi ?
7. Sudden death of San-fo-chi
8. Tambralinga (Nakhon Si Tammarat) emerged
9. Phantom of San-fo-chi

Appendix1. Langkasuka and Chi-tu
1.Langkasuka was not Pattani
2.‘Lan Saka’ near Nakhon Si Thmmarat
3.Langkasuka and Chi-tu

Appendix 2. List of tributary countries

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